There is such a huge disparity between digital surfaces and systems from one console to another- it can be overwhelming to know where to start on a board you haven’t used before.
This is why having a thorough knowledge of signal flow is so important. It allows you to walk up to any console, take a moment to get your bearings- here’s my input gain, here’s my channel EQ, etc. and quickly get to work.
When you own the console or are responsible for it, you should dive deep into the manual or online tutorial and learn it so you can work efficiently. If you are just walking in and mixing on a console du-jour, there should be an audio tech who is well versed in the software platform, menus, and filing system of that console.
Now, I said ‘should’. For any of you who’ve worked in live sound for more than a year, you all know that what ‘should’ be and what ‘is’ are two very different things. So with that in mind, I...
Input Lists and Stage Plots
When doing live shows, there are two things that can make setting up and patching the stage go smoothly and efficiently. They are an input list and stage plot.
An input list is essentially a list of inputs and the corresponding channels in the snake or console that they are patched into. The most basic contain the snake channel, input and possibly a microphone or DI preference. More advanced input lists can include sub snake channels, color coding, location of the input on stage, mic stand preference, and any other relevant info.
BASIC INPUT LIST
ADVANCED INPUT LIST
Everything that is patched into the snake and/or console is an input. This includes all microphones, DIs, any devices for playback, as well as other audio source. As the size and the scope of the show increases, so will the information on the input...
Gain structure generally refers to setting proper input gain to achieve the best signal to noise ratio. Optimum gain is not just turning it up until it’s in the red as a lighting guy once told me! Hmmm.
Gain staging occurs at many places in the sound system- between the soundboard, signal processing, amplifiers, inside the soundboard itself, and from the various sources coming from the stage. The level coming into each piece of gear should be the same going out and the next device in the signal path should also be seeing the same level.
This is called ‘Unity Gain’. For example; if the output meter on your soundboard is showing 0dB (nominal) and the next device in the signal path is the system crossover, it should be seeing 0dB at the input and the signal leaving it should initially be 0dB, and so on down the line.
While some devices are used specifically to increase or decrease gain, and you may make adjustments to output levels to suit your needs, if you...