Mixing Keyboards and Playback Tracks

I talk a lot about how one of the first steps in building a great mix starts with getting great sounds from the source, making sure the instruments are sounding their best before you put a mic on them.  Drums should be tuned and the heads in good shape, guitar tones dialed in, etc. that's the obvious, but it also includes balancing keyboard patches and playback tracks.

When you’ve got a keyboard player with a variety of keyboards, synths, and rack full of sounds it’s very important to work to get not only the levels, but the tones balanced.

It’s equally important with playback tracks or stems that can come in many different configurations and from many different sources.

I’ll start with keyboards

There is often a big difference in what the keyboard player hears coming from their keyboard rig through their IEMs and wedges, versus how it translates through the PA. 

For example, they could be compensating with extra high end on a patch to...

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Singers, want to know how to sound great at your live gigs?

You’ve spent years training your voice, working on your breathing, improving your technique, chugging throat coat and lemon water before gigs, and your voice reflects all the time and practice that you’ve put in.

But it doesn’t matter how incredible your voice is… if you aren't using proper microphone technique no one will know.


Great mic technique will make a HUGE difference in how good you sound when performing live.  


The difference between good and bad mic technique is- the difference between a fantastic show where your vocal shines in the mix, 


a show where your vocal is buried, the audience is complaining that they can’t hear you, a show plagued by feedback, where no one can hear how gifted of a singer you are.



Good mic technique is singing directly into the capsule, with it very close to your mouth.

When the mic is too far away, your voice will sound thin and weak.

If you are cupping the mic,...

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Carefully Crafting Your Sound can Yield Better Quality Recordings and Save you Time When Mixing

By: Michelle Sabolchick Pettinato


You’ve finally finished writing your song, you've tweaked and tweaked, changing phrases, a word here and there until it was just right. You can't wait to start recording and get this baby out into the world. If you want to make the recording and mixing as painless as possible, a little pre-production will go a long way. Here are some things to consider before you hit record.


What is your goal?

You should have a really good idea of how the finished product should sound.


Is your intention for the song to compete with the current pop hits? Are you recording electronic music or orchestral? Are you going to be the next big country sensation?  Whatever the answer is, this will guide your choices from instrumentation to tone and coloration.


Think about the arrangement.  Will there be space for the song to breathe or are you going after a wall of sound? What is the emotion and energy you are trying to express with...

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VCAs, DCAs, and Groups oh my!

Uncategorized Feb 23, 2021

Should you use them?  Which one and why?

VCAs/DCAs and Groups have often confused sound engineers.

Some prefer mixing on one or the other and some use a combination of both.  It’s often about preference but there are reasons to use one over the other.

VCAs or DCAs

VCAs/DCAs work like a remote control for the faders assigned to it.  You can easily control the input fader level of multiple input channels with one VCA fader.  If your kick drum channel fader is at 0 and assigned to VCA 1, moving VCA 1 to + 5 on the VCA will essentially be increasing the level of the kick drum channel at the fader an additional 5dB.  When you have all of your drum channels assigned to a VCA you can easily bring the overall drum mix down with one fader preserving the individual mix between the drum channels.

Mix Groups/Sub Groups/Control Groups

Groups are similar, allowing you to group multiple channels together for easier control, but Groups allow...

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The C word

Uncategorized Feb 23, 2021


It’s so important to have clear open lines of communication with the artist/band/client.   

Whether you are hired to mix one show or a tour, the first thing you need to do after introducing yourself, is find out what the artists/band’s/client’s needs are. 

If it’s a band- what does the stage plot and input list look like?

If it’s a client for a corporate gig or public speaking engagement- How many microphones do they need?  Hard wired or Wireless?  Lav, headset, or handheld?  Do they need monitors?  Music or audio playback?  Etc.

Next find out what are their expectations?  

If it’s a band- what do they want their show to sound like?  Do they have specific ideas about their sound, e.g. keep the bass thumping, vocal harmonies are very important, keep the acoustic guitar equal to level with the lead vocal, make it sound like the record, etc.

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Be on time!

One of the first rules of the road is Be On Time!   It’s generally considered in the professional concert touring industry that if you are on time, you are late.  That means if bus call is 9 am, you should be already checked out of the hotel, on the bus and ready to roll at 9, preferably at least 5 minutes prior.  If the show starts at 8 you should be in your position no later than 10 minutes prior.  

If you are working a show as a stagehand, it’s very important that you show up on time for labor calls.  Load in, Show call, and Load out all start at a pre-determined time, not whenever you decide to show up.  

You may think being just ten minutes late to a load in is not a big deal when in fact the rest of the crew are now having to work harder to make up for the missing crewman/woman -YOU!  Work happens fast on a live show or event and a LOT happens in a very short time.  So if you show...

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What can you learn today?

Uncategorized Feb 23, 2021

You know one of the most important things I've learned over the years is to never stop learning.  The moment you think you know everything is the moment you become obsolete.  Especially in the world of live sound.  There is always more to learn, new technology, new skills, and other ways of doing things.

I want to tell you a little story about how always being open to learning helped me improve my mixing skills dramatically overnight.

Several years ago I was hired to take over as FOH Engineer for the Legendary rock band STYX.  The now late and dearly missed Gary Loizzo had been mixing STYX for as long as I had been doing sound, well over two decades and he was ready to retire. Gary had also Produced and Engineered most of STYX recordings over the course of their career.

A little side note here- STYX was one of my all time favorite bands when I was growing up so this was a dream gig for me!

While Gary was handing over his mixing duties to me, I had the...

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Compression is Not the Answer

Many people think that compression is the key to great results when mixing. Compression is a very useful tool but it will not fix a bad mix. The truth is you need to know how to build a good mix before you apply compression.

What is compression for anyway?

A compressor is used to control the dynamic range of a signal, closing the gap between the loudest and quietest sounds. This helps prevent clipping or distortion, controls transients, and keeps things from jumping out in the mix.

Compression can be corrective or creative. 

An example of corrective compression would be using it to smooth out the spirited playing of the bass player or a wildly dynamic singer who goes from a whisper to a scream.

Examples of creative compression are using compression to create loudness or to add the particular characteristics of the compressor to color the track or mix. A little compression on the overall mix can increase headroom when mixing live sound, and compression can help to pull a...

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What's the Frequency Kenneth?

If you're old enough to remember, that was the name of a song from the band R.E.M. in the mid 1990s.  What's the frequency is also a question that a lot of sound engineers and musicians struggle with.

One of the things that can wreak havoc with a live performance is feedback.  I'm sure many of you can relate... you are struggling to get the vocal over the insanely loud stage volume and dodging feedback bullets left and right.  While you search frantically with the EQ to figure out which frequency it is, the audience and band is glaring at you. Not a pleasant situation to be in.


When you can’t identify frequencies it can be very difficult to get things to sound the way you want them to.


For example, how to make muddy sounding vocals really shine and pop in the mix.  How to mix so you can hear all of the instruments without them interfering with each other.  How to make the PA system to work with the room acoustics.



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What Makes a Song Eternal?

songwriting Dec 29, 2020

We’re in the height of the Christmas season, and it’s been weeks of holiday movies, TV specials, Christmas songs on the radio and streaming non-stop.  As we listen to our old favorites and some new ones, there is one song that has piqued my curiosity- ‘Carol of the Bells’.

The song is just over 100 years old and began as a Ukrainian Folk song called “Shchedryk” to usher in the New Year. Yet it has endured, having been recorded and performed across every modern genre of music.

There are many versions of it from orchestral to heavy metal, from techno to a cappella and it’s almost always a hit or at least a fan favorite no matter who it’s performed by. But why?

When I first learned how to play it on the piano in my childhood, it quickly became a holiday favorite of mine. There were a handful of other Christmas songs that I enjoyed playing but there was just something about the melody of Carol of the Bells that grabbed me.

Of course,...

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