Gain structure generally refers to setting proper input gain to achieve the best signal to noise ratio. Optimum gain is not just turning it up until it’s in the red as a lighting guy once told me! Hmmm.
Gain staging occurs at many places in the sound system- between the soundboard, signal processing, amplifiers, inside the soundboard itself, and from the various sources coming from the stage. The level coming into each piece of gear should be the same going out and the next device in the signal path should also be seeing the same level.
This is called ‘Unity Gain’. For example; if the output meter on your soundboard is showing 0dB (nominal) and the next device in the signal path is the system crossover, it should be seeing 0dB at the input and the signal leaving it should initially be 0dB, and so on down the line.
While some devices are used specifically to increase or decrease gain, and you may make adjustments to output levels to suit your needs, if you...
One of the most important things to understand when doing live sound is signal flow. Signal flow is the path of the audio signal from its source to its output. In mixing, it’s how the sound gets from an instrument or input to the audio console and what path the signal takes through the console before finally coming out of the speakers.
Why do you need to understand signal flow?
Well for one, so you can properly connect all the various parts of your sound system.
Sound Systems are comprised of many different pieces of equipment, including but not limited to loudspeakers, crossovers, amplifiers, signal processors, audio consoles, microphones, DI boxes, sub snakes, splitters, etc. There is a specific path the audio signal needs to take through this equipment for it to function properly.
Knowing signal flow allows you to correctly wire all these components together.
You need to patch the inputs on the stage to the snake, the snake to the consoles, the console to the system EQ and...
Want to get some serious time on the console and hone your mixing skills? Doing sound for a church or house of worship is a great place to start. With some mega churches having sound systems as large and complicated as what you would find at an arena level rock concert, mixing church sound can be very fulfilling.
Below, Samantha talks about her experience working in audio and tech for houses of worship.
Tell me about your experience doing church sound. What was your official title? What were your duties?
My experience with church sound has been inadvertent and incredible. I’ve been heavily in the house of worship sector for six years now. I’ve had many titles: A1, producer, trainer, and even something called “IT media supervisor”. I often work in many different churches throughout the year as a consultant. One of my two consistent positions is that of a technical producer, or sorts. I’m in charge of a seminary’s weekly chapel...
Sound companies are an obvious place to start if you want to work in live sound. From small local companies to the big players who provide sound systems for all the major concert tours. Below I talk to Taylor who works as an audio tech for one of the biggest touring sound companies in the U.S.
Tell me about your experience working for the company.
I’ve been working for the company for almost three years now, and I love it! It’s been perfect for me as an up and coming freelancer to get my feet into the industry and start making a name for myself. It’s provided me so many opportunities to meet new people and work some really awesome shows.
What are your typical duties on tour?
For most tours I’m the stage patch tech, meaning that I handle running XLRs and multipoint cables from monitor world out to the stage. I also handle placing microphones on instruments.
How long did you work for the company before doing a live show? How long before going on...
Theme parks are a great place to build your live sound skills. Christian Rosado who is currently Entertainment Production Planner for a major theme park talks about what working in audio at a theme park involves.
Tell me about your job working as an audio tech for a theme park.
When working at a theme park you have two options, you are either a stage technician or an event technician. Stage techs are only scheduled at stages in which they know tracks or roles and or they can learn other stages. When you get trained at a stage you can let the managers and crew chiefs know that your skill sets are on a specific discipline for instance mine is audio, then they can go ahead and train you in the audio positions at the stage.
As an event tech or what we call a flex tech, you are capable of doing stages and events. At events you can be A2’s or audio assists or you can be the A1 (Audio Engineer), we are always in need of good A2’s but we only have a...
Working on a cruise ship is one way to get a lot of live sound and mixing experience but the job comes with many challenges!
Below, Victoria talks about her experience in working for one of the major cruise lines.
Tell me about your job doing audio for cruise ships. What was your official title? What were your duties?
I worked as a Lounge Technician. I was in charge of all the smaller entertainment spaces such as the Piano bar, Karaoke bar, Pool Deck, and any pop-up events. The number of venues varied by the size of the ship. I was responsible for the audio and lighting for all the shows that happened every night. Some of the larger ships have two Lounge Technicians, but most of them just have one in charge of it all.
What are the other audio positions on a cruise ship and what do those jobs include?
The only other audio position on the ship is a sound technician. They are assigned a space such as the main theater, the ice skating rink, or aqua theater. They...
Whether you are going on tour with a new artist, running sound for a local venue, or working for a sound company there's a lot more to mixing a great sounding show than just turning knobs and pushing faders.
Step 1- Do your homework-what kind of music will you be mixing? Learn the artist's songs and get familiar with the style of music. If you are going tour with them as their sound engineer you'll want to deconstruct the songs and make lots of notes.
Step 2- Communicate with the artist, band, or client on what their needs are. What ideas do they have for their sound? How many inputs do they have? What are they? What do they need in the way of monitor mixes? What songs have solos or instrument changes, go through the set list so you know what to expect for each song- different vocalists? BGVs? Solos? Are there any specific cues?
Step 3- Show up prepared. Have an input list, stage plot, and audio spec. Advance the gig so...
A well run soundcheck can make a world of difference in your show.
A great sounding show is the goal of every live musician and sound engineer.
Wouldn’t it be nice if from the first downbeat your stage sound was dialed in and you could just enjoy playing instead of trying to dial in your tone, monitor levels, and fighting to be heard over stage volume?
Lots of things need to happen prior to the performance and depending on the circumstances, there is often not as much time as would be desired.
What can you do as a musician to help make the most of the time available?
Whether your band just plays for fun on weekends or you are a full time touring musician, here are some tips to help you work constructively with the audio crew and get the most out of your soundcheck time so you can have a successful show.
Where’s the soundguy/gal?
Your sound engineer is here to help you. We (band and crew) are all working towards the same goal- a great show.
A well run soundcheck can make a world of difference in your show.
Wouldn’t you love to start the show with a great mix instead of spending the first several songs trying to pull it together? What can you do to get the most out of soundcheck?
Prior to doing a soundcheck with the band, it’s very beneficial for the audio crew to run through a line check of all the inputs. This can be done with the band technicians or another audio tech. During line check the house and monitor engineer should be making sure all of the inputs are patched and working correctly, no buzzes, crackles, or pops. Listen for things like bad cables, noisy lines, interference, etc. repair or replace as needed.. Line check is also time to work on getting inputs dialed in.
Line check has several purposes-
1- To make sure all inputs are working correctly. All signals should be clean and strong and patched in the right channels.
2- To set input...
Many of us in the world of concert touring are working freelance. Some touring professionals have house gigs or local work when they are not touring and other’s income is solely from touring. Regardless of how your make your living, if you work as an independent contractor or freelance, there are some things you need to consider when it comes to your finances.
Even though we are in essence working freelance, unless we are incorporated or an LLC, we are paid as an employee for the duration of the tour. Most who work directly for the band or artist, (the sound engineer, lighting designer, backline technicians, PM, TM, PA, etc.), fall into this category.
Although we may be paid as employees we usually don’t enjoy the benefits that most employees enjoy such as health insurance, 401ks, bonuses, paid vacation and more. Most don’t even think about these matters until it’s too late.
After all when you are in your early 20s retirement is the furthest thing from your...